Laser Physics

  • Class 45
  • Practice 12
  • Independent work 93
Total 150

Course title

Laser Physics

Lecture type


Course code






Lecturers and associates

Course objectives

Light absorption and emission; Einstein coefficients; Selection rules for absorption and emission.
Absorption coefficient; Population inversion.
Line profile and half-width of spectral lines; Lorentz model; Doppler broadening of spectral lines.
Electromagnetic waves in resonator; Density of modes; Modes of open resonators.
Different types of resonators; Fabry-Perot resonator; Fundamental Gauss mode.
Threshold condition; Amplification and losses in resonators; The quality factor of resonators Q; Feedback amplification in lasers.
Single mode and multimode lasers. Selection of single modes by optical prism; Grating and Fabry-Perot etalon. Spectral resolution of optical elements; Characteristic of laser light (directionalit, space and time coherence).
Midterm exam.
Pulse lasers (Q switching, mode-locking, gain switching).
Gas lasers; Physical principles of atomic (He-Ne), ionic (Ar+ ion), molecular (CO2, N2), chemical and excimer lasers.
Solid state lasers; Physical principles of crystal and glass lasers (ruby, Nd-Yag).
Physical principles of fiber lasers; Resonators in fiber lasers.
Physical principles of fiber lasers; Resonators in fiber lasers; Physical principles of semiconductor lasers; Physical principles of free electron and x-ray lasers.
Holography; Applications of holography.
Final exam.

Required reading

V. Henč-Bartolić, L. Bistričić (2001.), Predavanja i auditorne vježbe iz fizike lasera, Element
Karl F. Renk (2012.), Basics of Laser Physics For Students of Science and Engineering, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012., Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Wolfgang Demtröder (2010.), Atoms,Molecules and Photons, Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Minimal learning outcomes

  • Describe the interaction of light with matter using classical and semi-classical theories
  • Explain the operation of laser resonator and laser theshold
  • Explain the special properties of laser radiation compared to more conventional sources
  • Explain the meaning of Q-switching and mode-locking in puls lasers
  • Explain how the choice and characteristics of laser materials and resonator determine the ultimate behaviour of a laser
  • Analyze the properties of laser and determine possible applications
  • Evaluate the multi-disciplinary nature of engineering systems
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